Ultimate Guide to Health and Safety

ultimate guide to health and safety
The Ultimate Guide to H&S is a health and safety article that morphs and improves as time goes on. It will share with you the best parts of our site as it grows and continues to evolve.

If there’s anything you think we should add to it, please let us know with a comment at the very bottom of the page.

So, when it comes to health and safety, what do you need to know?

It’s a pretty broad question (just ever so slightly). We could write, and people have done, an encyclopedia on the subject. But we aren’t going to!

We just want to concentrate on introducing you to some of the most important concepts in the world of health and safety. So that you can pick out the bits that are important to you and your business.

Which parts of ‘health and safety’ are important to you?

In this post, we break down the key elements that any business will need to consider. It should be valuable to you if you are people supervisor, manager or business owner.


What is Health and Safety?

Under UK law and the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974), it’s the employer’s responsibility to protect the health and safety of not only their employees, but also anyone else who might be affected by the business.

In the United States, similar legislation is called the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970), and the Work Health and Safety (2011) Act in Australia.

The law recognises that 100% protection is not a realistic expectation. The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 say this about it: ‘employers have a legal duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable*, the health, safety and welfare at work of employees‘.

*You can go to our post on ‘What is reasonably practicable?’ to learn more about the term and what it might mean for your business

For most small, low-risk businesses just a few straightforward measures are all that’s needed. All businesses have to conduct a risk assessment and have a health and safety policy.

The law states that those with fewer than five employees don’t need to write down their health and safety policy or risk assessment results. That said, it’s probably wise to do it anyway.

Safeti Health and Safety

Does your business have Health and Safety risks?

Some types of business are inherently more dangerous than others. Can you think of any risky ones?

Let’s see….. How about mining? Those involving the handling of explosives and noxious chemicals? Nuclear power plants maybe? What about those in which you have to work with heavy machinery or work at height. Agriculture? Construction? Surely those working out at sea are at risk? Etc. etc…..

There are plenty of high risk industries that we can identify. many of which are strictly controlled when it comes to safety. But it’s impossible to run any kind of business without incurring some level of risk.

Regardless of which industry we are talking about, employers are responsible for the physical safety of employees and anyone else who visits the workplace.

Common sense measures can help significantly to reduce risk. Such as making sure that buildings and equipment are in good repair and adhering to regulations.

This is why basic health & safety risk assessments are so essential for every organisation.

What about the Health and Wellbeing part then?

Occupational health has been defined as ‘enabling people to undertake their occupation in the way that causes least harm to their health’.

The term ‘health’ is referred to by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

That’s pretty deep, and may seem like a utopian (unrealistic) dream to many employer’s!

Nevertheless, the focus upon employee’s health and well-being in the workplace is becoming increasingly important over time.

With that in mind, it’s important to remember this one thing regarding health. Employer’s in the UK have a responsibility to take reasonable action to ensure the health of their employee’s is not negatively impacted during the course of their work.

Why does Health and Safety in the Workplace matter?

The obvious business-related motivation to look after the health, safety and well-being of your employee’s is that it inevitably enhances trust, productivity and loyalty.

Of course, people with health problems are more likely to be absent from work and less productive when in work. They are also much more likely to leave if the company was in some way responsible.

And health problems are extremely common, as shown by the latest government figures:

  • 1 in 4 UK employees have a physical health condition
  • 1 in 8 have a mental health condition
  • 1 in 10 has a musculoskeletal condition
  • 33% of those with a condition say it is long-term
  • 42% of those with a health condition say that it affects their work

Most of the above conditions won’t have been caused in the current working environment. But, it’s important to consider that an employer must not aggravate or significantly worsen any pre-existing illness or injury.

For free insights from subject-matter experts and HSE professionals from across the world, tune in to the Safeti Podcast, with Richard Collins!

What are the benefits of a strong Health and Safety Policy?

There are numerous benefits of having strong policies and following good practices in the workplace.

UK law says that every business must have a policy for managing health and safety.

A health and safety policy sets out your general approach to health and safety. It explains how you, as an employer, will manage health and safety in your business. It should clearly say who does what, when and how.

If you have five or more employees, you must write your policy down. If you have fewer than five employees you do not have to write anything down, but it is useful to do so.

You can find out more about writing your policy over here.

Positive outcomes result from employer’s taking ownership of their duty of care for their employees and anyone else who may be on their premises.

Benefit 1 – Protecting your staff

Following health and safety guidelines is primarily to protect employers and their staff from injury, illness or coming into any other form of harm in the workplace.

One of the main benefits of following health and safety practices is to prevent common workplaces injuries & illness such as back pain, falling from height, asthma, injuries from slips and trips and asbestos-related illness.

Benefit 2 – Reducing absences

Following health and safety guidelines and maintaining a safe work place will reduce the risk of work-related illnesses and injuries, and therefore reduce staff absences. Employers therefore also save money on the direct costs of absences, such as paying salaries.

Benefit 3 – Improving productivity

If your colleagues and employees are able to work in a safe environment, this will improve morale and overall productivity. It is difficult to argue that happy and motivated staff won’t be more productive than those who feel like their well-being is low priority.

Benefit 4 – Saving money

By maintaining health and safety practices in the workplaces, and therefore reducing absences and improving productivity, you will be saving money by retaining staff.

Money spent on absences and recruitment processes will decrease, and the business’ profits will increase.

Benefit 5 – Protecting the business

The other major reason to pay good attention to your health and safety obligations is that the regulator, the Health and Safety Executive, and the courts have immense power to punish individuals and companies who are not taking their obligations seriously.

What does the Health and Safety at Work Act (UK) say?

The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 sets out the legal framework for managing workplace health and safety in the UK.

The act defines the general duties of everyone from employers (section 2) and employees (section 7,8) to owners, managers and maintainers of work premises(etc) for maintaining health and safety within most workplaces.

There is, however, further specific legislation for business sectors that operate within a higher risk environment. Such as the construction industry, chemical manufacturing, mining etc.

The act itself is a primary piece of legislation set out by the government. Other regulations which compliment the HASAWA 1974 are known as statutory instruments (essentially secondary pieces of legislation).

Statutory instruments serve to make small changes,updates or additions to existing legislation. Without having to create an entirely new Bill.

If you would like to find out more about the most recent changes to the the Health and Safety ct (click image below) with legal expert Kizzy Augustin.

health and safety sentencing guidelines

Needless to say, the long-term growth and sustainability of your business is predicated on your reputation and the perception of your brand to your customers.

From that perspective, looking after your employee’s and other people affected by your operations is a no-brainer.

What are the Health and Safety Responsibilities for Employers?

Your employer’s duty under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASWA) is to provide you with a safe and healthy workplace, and this includes:

  • a safe system of work;
  • a safe place of work;
  • safe equipment, plant and machinery;
  • safe and competent people working alongside you, because employers are also liable for the actions of their staff and managers;
  • carrying out risk assessments as set out in regulations, and taking steps to eliminate or control these risks;
  • informing workers fully about all potential hazards associated with any work process, chemical substance or activity, including providing instruction, training and supervision;
  • appointing a ‘competent person’ responsible for health and safety (competent persons, such as a head of health and safety, oversee day-to-day safety management, oversee safety inspections, and liaise with staff safety reps);
  • consulting with workplace safety representatives (if a union is recognised, your employer must set up and attend a workplace safety committee if two or more safety reps request one); and
  • providing adequate facilities for staff welfare at work.

It’s important not to forget that there are also fundamental health and safety responsibilities for employees as well….

Health and Safety Responsibilities of Employees

As an employee, you have rights and you have responsibilities for your own well-being and that of your colleagues. 

Your most important responsibilities as an employee are:

  • to take reasonable care of your own health and safety
  • take reasonable care not to put other people – fellow employees and members of the public – at risk by what you do or don’t do in the course of your work
  • co-operate with your employer, making sure you get proper training and you understand and follow the company’s health and safety policies
  • not to interfere with or misuse anything that’s been provided for your health, safety or welfare
  • to report any injuries, strains or illnesses you suffer as a result of doing your job, your employer may need to change the way you work
  • tell your employer if something happens that might affect your ability to work, like becoming pregnant or suffering an injury 
  • if you drive or operate machinery, you have a responsibility to tell your employer if you take medication that makes you drowsy 

You can find out more about the HASAWA in our post Health and Safety at Work Act – Simplified

Who enforces the Health and Safety Legislation?

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the appointed body that is responsible for enforcing in the UK.

However, when it comes to enacting enforcement, this responsibility is divided between the HSE and local authorities.

What exactly is the Health and Safety Executive?

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is a UK government agency responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in Great Britain. . In Northern Ireland, these duties lie with the Health and Safety Executive for Northern Ireland.

The HSE was created by the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, and is sponsored by the Department for Work and Pensions. As part of its work, HSE investigates industrial accidents, small and large, including major incidents. Such as the explosion and fire at Buncefield in 2005.

The HSE’s duties are to:

  • Assist and encourage persons concerned with matters relevant to the operation of the objectives of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
  • Make arrangements for and encourage research and publication, training, and information in connection with its work
  • Make arrangements to provide an information and advisory service on relevant issues
  • Propose new H and S regulations

Are you new to Health, Safety and Environment?

If so, you might be interested in our podcast for beginner’s, Safeti School.

The podcast is geared towards those who have limited knowledge of Environment, Health & Safety and want to get up to speed on the basics quickly.

We crunch down HSE learning into simple, bite-size snippets that you can use for your business! You can check it out below….

Safeti School

Let’s move on to look at some examples of Health and Safety regulation in the UK…..

Examples of Health and Safety Regulations in the UK

As previously mentioned, the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is the principal piece of legislation for occupational H&S in Great Britain.

However, there are other regulations to implement which are designed to keep your workplace compliant and safe.

So remember, more specific regulations may also be relevant dependent on specific business areas or industry.

Here are a few examples:

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999

Also known as the ‘Management Regs’, these came into effect in 1993. Main employer duties under the Regulations include:

  • making ‘assessments of risk’ to the health and safety of its workforce, and to act upon risks they identify, so as to reduce them;
  • appointing competent persons to oversee workplace health and safety;
  • providing workers with information and training on occupational health and safety; and
  • operating a written health and safety policy.

The Workplace (Health, Safety & Welfare) Regulations 1992

The main provisions of these Regulations require employers to provide:

  • adequate lighting, heating, ventilation and workspace (and keep them in a clean condition);
  • staff facilities, including toilets, washing facilities and refreshment; and
  • safe passageways, i.e. to prevent slipping and tripping hazards.

The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992

The main provisions here apply to display screen equipment (DSE) ‘users’, defined as workers who ‘habitually’ use a computer as a significant part of their normal work.

This includes people who are regular users of DSE equipment, or rely on it as part of their job. This covers you if you use DSE for an hour or more continuously, and/or you are making daily use of DSE.

Employers are required to:

  • make a risk assessment of workstation use by DSE users, and reduce the risks identified;
  • ensure DSE users take ‘adequate breaks’;
  • provide regular eyesight tests;
  • provide health and safety information;
  • provide adjustable furniture (e.g. desk, chair, etc.); and
  • demonstrate that they have adequate procedures designed to reduce 

The Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at Work Regulations 1992

The main provisions require employers to:

  • ensure that suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) is provided free of charge “wherever there are risks to health and safety that cannot be adequately controlled in other ways.” The PPE must be ‘suitable’ for the risk in question, and include protective face masks and goggles, safety helmets, gloves, air filters, ear defenders, overalls and protective footwear; and
  • provide information, training and instruction on the use of this equipment.

Manual Handling Regulations 1992

The main provisions of these Regulations require employers to:

  • avoid (so far as is reasonably practicable) the need for employees to undertake any manual handling activities involving risk of injury;
  • make assessments of manual handling risks, and try to reduce the risk of injury. The assessment should consider the task, the load and the individual’s personal characteristics (physical strength, etc.); and
  • provide workers with information on the weight of each load.

The Provision and Use of Work Equipment (PUWER) Regulations 1998

The main provisions require employers to:

  • ensure the safety and suitability of work equipment for the purpose for which it is provided;
  • properly maintain the equipment, irrespective of how old it is;
  • provide information, instruction and training on the use of equipment; and
  • protect employees from dangerous parts of machinery.

The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995

Let’s take a look at the RIDDOR regulations as an example of what these pieces of legislation might include;

First off, RIDDOR stands for the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013.

These Regulations in the UK (United Kingdom) require employers, the self-employed and those in control of premises to report specified workplace incidents.

This guidance will help clarify how RIDDOR applies and whether certain types of incident are reportable.

The HSE will pass on reported information about incidents to other regulators where appropriate.

For basic information on the requirements of RIDDOR, such as, who should report, how to report and when to report, keep reading!

Why is RIDDOR important?

In 2017/18, an estimated 555,000 injuries occurred at work and 1.4 million working people were suffering from a new or ongoing work-related illness. For more in-depth stats, check out our post on UK Health and Safety Statistics.

RIDDOR, then, is in place to keep you and your colleagues safe at work. The legislation is important because it holds employers responsible for negligence or bad working behaviours.

In practice, this encourages people to follow health and safety procedures in the workplace, which helps to prevent accidents.

Furthermore, when you follow RIDDOR it helps the UK governmental department, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), to keep a record of work-related incidents.

This information allows them to identify where and how risks are arising so they can prevent similar occurrences. As you can see from the graph below, slips & trips and manual handling are the cause of >50% of the non-fatal RIDDOR accidents.

RIDDOR Non-fatal injuries UK

When it comes to fatalities, we can also so the trend is that over 50% of fatalities are caused by either falls from height or being struck by a vehicle or moving object.

RIDDOR Health and Safety Statistics

If employers ignore RIDDOR and fail to report incidents, they are breaking the law.

In 2011, Tesco admitted to not following essential procedures for reporting staff injuries at two of its stores. As a result, the company was fined £34,000 for RIDDOR failures.

By following procedure and reporting any incidents as required, employers ensure that these risks are addressed and kept to a minimum.

This keeps everyone safe in the workplace and ensures that the image of the company is not tarnished.

For more on RIDDOR, check our our post.

Do you want to directly manage Health and Safety?

Many people make the decision of venturing into the word of ‘Health and Safety’ without fully acknowledging the pros and cons of working in the space.

There are some questions you might want to ask yourself before taking a step in the health and safety direction.

Firstly, look at the ‘Why’. Why are you wanting to get into the HSE market by applying to be a Health, Safety and Environment Officer or a similar associated position? Is it for the money?

The reality is that many do go into this area of work due to the attractive salaries on offer. It’s not a good start.

Hopefully this isn’t your primary motivator, as that’s not a good reason to start in any career and will unlikely lead you toward happiness!

If you are seriously considering going in the direction of applying for a Health and Safety position, I wanted to share some thoughts & useful information to help you along the way.

For myself, I have always had an interest in the protection of people and our environment. Since childhood, I have been captivated by the interconnection of human health and the state of our natural environment.

My personal experience has developed through a variety of roles, some where Health, Safety and Environment only made up a part of the responsibility.

Depending on the size of the business, this can be a good thing.

The thing that strikes me as an HSE professional, for many, it is a vocation.

You are a steward for the protection of people and the environment.

It’s also worth remembering that we are equally affected by health, safety and environmental issues within the workplace as we are outside of it.

If you don’t already, it may help for you to start thinking about how HSE affects what you do every day?

You’d may be surprised at how much of the modern environment has been designed and developed with consideration for our health and safety.

For more help and guidance on getting involved in Health, Safety & Environment, , read our post here.

If you would like to hear more about some of the opportunities and challenges in the profession, make sure to subscribe to the Safeti Podcast. Here’s one of our Episode’s with behavioural expert Professor Tim Marsh…..

Behavioural Health and Safety with Tim Marsh

Does your business need advice from a Competent Person?

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations state that you must get help from a competent person to enable you to meet the requirements of health and safety law.

A competent person is someone who has sufficient training and experience or knowledge and other qualities that allow them to assist you properly.

The level of competence required will depend on the complexity of the situation and the particular help you need.

In many cases, there will be appropriate expertise within the business to cope with it. You should give preference to those in your own organisation who have the adequate level of knowledge and competence (which can include the employer themselves).

That said, sometimes it is more a case of there not being enough resources available to complete the necessary work. If resources are stretched, you will want to consult with health and safety representatives in good time to make arrangements.

Who should you ask for help?

You should always ensure that you get the right type of advice for your business. To ensure you find an appropriately qualified professional, IOSH is a good place to start.

The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) is the world’s largest health and safety membership body and the only one currently with a Royal Charter.

With over 44,000 members in 99 countries, IOSH is committed to ensuring that global work practices are safe, healthy and sustainable. IOSH is a UK-based organisation offering professional qualifications in order to raise standards of health and safety in the workplace.You can find out more about IOSH in our post over here.

If you looking for a competent person, their level of IOSH membership is a pretty good indicator of their level of experience. Chartered Members work under the IOSH Code of Conduct, this ensures that the level of competence, work quality and integrity is ensured for your business.

Any consultancy work undertaken by Safeti is always carried out or overseen by an IOSH Chartered (CMIOSH) professional.

The Occupational Health and Safety Consultants Register (OSHCR)

Another way to identify appropriately qualified people, through the HSE’s OSH Consultant’s Register (OSHCR).

OSHCR is a public register of UK-based health and safety consultants, set up by the Health and Safety Executive to assist UK employers and business owners with competent advice on workplace health and safety issues.

You can find consultants via the OSHCR website, including myself, Safeti.com creator and HSE Consultant, Richard Collins.

health and safety services

What services can Safeti provide?

The type of direct support that we provide currently comes in two basic forms:

  1. Competent Person We provide flexible competent person support from a Chartered, OSHCR Registered Health, Safety & Environment professional*, working at a high level as your Health, Safety & Environmental representative.
  2. Partnering We can provide a range of HSE support services that compliment your existing resources and that can be tailored to your business objectives.
  3. Training We can develop and deliver awareness training that is closely aligned the needs of your audience

Find out more about Safeti’s Services


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